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Jan 2nd, 2009

LORAZEPAM FOR SALE, Incumbent President George W. Bush defeated Senator John F. Kerry in the 2004 United States Presidential Election.   Bush received 62 million votes (51%) and Kerry received 59 million votes (48%), is LORAZEPAM safe.

Michael Gastner, LORAZEPAM without a prescription, Cosma Shalizi, and Mark Newman at The University of Michican have put together a great collection of maps and cartograms analyzing the 2004 election results by state and county.

Election results by state

On election night and in the months since then, cheap LORAZEPAM no rx, we have seen many maps that look like this:

1-2004-by-state.png
The (contiguous 48) states of the country are colored red or blue to indicate whether a majority of their voters voted for the Republican candidate (George W. Bush) or the Democratic candidate (John F, LORAZEPAM FOR SALE. Cheap LORAZEPAM, Kerry) respectively. The map gives the superficial impression that the "red states" dominate the country, since they cover far more area than the blue ones, where can i find LORAZEPAM online. However, LORAZEPAM use, as pointed out by many others, this is misleading because it fails to take into account the fact that most of the red states have small populations, whereas most of the blue states have large ones, LORAZEPAM dose. The blue may be small in area, Buy LORAZEPAM online no prescription, but they are large in terms of numbers of people, which is what matters in an election. LORAZEPAM FOR SALE, We can correct for this by making use of a cartogram, a map in which the sizes of states have been rescaled according to their population. That is, LORAZEPAM coupon, states are drawn with a size proportional not to their sheer topographic acreage -- which has little to do with politics -- but to the number of their inhabitants, LORAZEPAM reviews, states with more people appearing larger than states with fewer, regardless of their actual area on the ground. Thus, LORAZEPAM pharmacy, on such a map, LORAZEPAM dangers, the state of Rhode Island, with its 1.1 million inhabitants, would appear about twice the size of Wyoming, online buy LORAZEPAM without a prescription, which has half a million, Rx free LORAZEPAM, even though Wyoming has 60 times the acreage of Rhode Island.

Here are the 2004 presidential election results on a population cartogram of this type:

2-2004-population-cartogram.png

The cartogram was made using the diffusion method of Gastner and Newman. Population data was taken from the 2000 US Census, buy LORAZEPAM online cod.

The cartogram reveals what we know already from the news: that the country was actually very evenly divided by the vote, rather than being dominated by one side or the other, LORAZEPAM FOR SALE.
The presidential election is not decided on the basis of the number of people who vote each way, Buy generic LORAZEPAM, however, but on the basis of the electoral college. Each state contributes a certain number of electors to the electoral college, order LORAZEPAM from mexican pharmacy, who vote according to the majority in their state. Purchase LORAZEPAM online, The candidate receiving a majority of the votes in the electoral college wins the election. The electoral votes are apportioned roughly according to states' populations, as measured by the census, LORAZEPAM samples, but with a small but deliberate bias in favor of smaller states. LORAZEPAM FOR SALE, We can represent the effects of the electoral college by scaling the sizes of states to be proportional to their number of electoral votes, which gives a map that looks like this:

3-2004-electoralcollege-cartogram.png

This cartogram looks very similar to the one above it, but it is not identical. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, Wyoming, for instance, has approximately doubled in size, LORAZEPAM description, precisely because of the bias in favor of small states. No prescription LORAZEPAM online, The areas of red and blue on the cartogram are now proportional to the actual numbers of electoral votes won by each candidate. Thus this map shows at a glance both which states went to which candidate and which candidate won more votes -- something that you cannot tell easily from the normal election-night red and blue map.
Election results by county
But we can go further, LORAZEPAM from canada. We can do the same thing also with the county-level election results and the images are even more striking, LORAZEPAM FOR SALE. Here is a map of US counties, Discount LORAZEPAM, again colored red and blue to indicate Republican and Democratic majorities respectively:

4-2004-by-county.png

Similar maps have appeared in the press, for example in USA Today, and have been cited as evidence that the Republican party has wide support, purchase LORAZEPAM. Again, LORAZEPAM australia, uk, us, usa, however, a cartogram gives a more accurate picture. Here is what the cartogram looks like for the county-level election returns:

5-2004-county-population-cartogram.png

Again, LORAZEPAM without prescription, the blue areas are much magnified, Where can i order LORAZEPAM without prescription, and areas of blue and red are now nearly equal. However, there is in fact still more red than blue on this map, fast shipping LORAZEPAM, even after allowing for population sizes. LORAZEPAM FOR SALE, Of course, we know that nationwide the percentages of voters voting for either candidate were almost identical, so what is going on here. LORAZEPAM from mexico, The answer seems to be that the amount of red on the map is skewed because there are a lot of counties in which only a slim majority voted Republican. One possible way to allow for this, suggested by Robert Vanderbei at Princeton University, is to use not just two colors on the map, red and blue, but instead to use red, blue, and shades of purple to indicate percentages of voters. Here is what the normal map looks like if you do this:

6-2007-shaded-by-county.png
And here's what the cartogram looks like:
7-2007-shaded-by-county-cartogram.png

In this map, it appears that only a rather small area is taken up by true red counties, the rest being mostly shades of purple with patches of blue in the urban areas.

A slight variation on the same idea is to use a nonlinear color scale like this:

8-2007-shaded-by-county-cartogram.png

9-2007-shaded-by-county-linear-cartogram.png

These maps use a color scale that ranges from red for 70% Republican or more, to blue for 70% Democrat or more. This is sort of practical, since there aren't many counties outside that range anyway, but to some extent it also obscures the true balance of red and blue.

Maps and cartograms above from http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election .

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20 Responses »

  1. Amazing maps! I hope we see some like these for the 2008 election.

  2. Very interesting page.
    Looks like my state, Indiana, is perfectly proportioned when weighted for electoral votes, population, and physical size.
    I already knew we were right at the break-off point when it comes to benefiting or not from the electoral college.
    States with higher populations all suffer, while states with fewer people get a subsidy due to the non-proportional
    distribution of electoral votes.

  3. GO OBAMA

  4. I come from a small state, NE, but I think that elections would be less affected by the small-state bias if all states divided their votes like we and our enlightened fellows in Maine do.

    It’d also end the candidates’ focusing on only 1 or 2 swing states rather than on issues that affect the country as a whole.

  5. #1 NoBama! Just say NO to socialism, racism, and military defeat! (and the dark side of the force!) Come on Bobby boy, you can do it!

    #2 There is still a huge population of people in the USA that don’t get the “Electorial College” vote when it comes to Presidential elections. That’s a good thing, otherwise the US would simple be run by the most populated states. Ergo the neat maps to show Presidents don’t directly get elected by the popular vote.

    #3 Go McCain!

    #4 If you think its bad now (which it is), wait and see what happens if Obama gets into office (the end of America).

  6. Richard Driskill is a typical republican idiot -Selfish, Self-centered, Egotistical, and Elitist!!!!!!

    Vote Obama so we can stop suffering in this country!!!

  7. Right on Richard. Wish we had more Americans that had the intelligence to pull their head out of Obama’s bottom part of his anatomy. Have you noticed all of the brown noses and tongues? I still think we need to divide this Country. They say that we are a country divided in half. We are the half that works and saves. Let us have out Greater United States of America, choose our leadership that has brains and vision, give us our military and we will take care of our things and the Dems can take everything else and Congress. It won’t take long until their spreading the wealth will get very old, when they no longer have our wealth to spread.

    Go USA and go McCain-Palin.

  8. I just wanted to say that the comment by Barbara A. Quirk, seems a little silly to me. I was just wondering if you forgot that a gigantic portion of the GOP are poor, angry, and racist. I personally don’t want them in my country, so your welcome to them, and I’m sure they’ll love the benefits they receive from trickle down don’t work-conomics. And the idea that all people with money are without brains like you…… very silly.

  9. I just wanted to say that Bryce Bugby is laughably hypocritcial in his belief that a ‘gigantic portion’ of the GOP is ‘racist’…as if pigeonholing someone into a stereotype as Mr. Bugby has done isn’t the exact thing he’s trying to label the GOP as being. The Hypocracy and Stupidity that ‘Conservatives’ display on a daily basis pales in comparison to the Hypocracy and Stupidity that ‘Liberal’ morons like Mr. Bugby put on display everytime they try to speak around their feet as they’re gagging on them.

    I Leave you with this parting quote from Thomas Jefferson: “A democracy is nothing more than mob rule, where fifty-one percent of the people may take away the rights of the other forty-nine.” In the case of this last election it looks like it’ll be fifty-two percent of the people trying to take away the rights of the other forty-eight.

  10. Yes this is an excellent display of how easy it is to “skew” the reader’s impression one way or another with chart design. I like the “shaded” regular US map best. The “red or blue” map most often used by newscasters is despicable. And hats off to Joey in NE for underscoring NE and Maine’s sensible split vote!

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